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白葡萄酒是如何酿造的-How White Wines Are Made

2018-06-04 14:34:42 23

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虽然大多数用于生产白葡萄酒的葡萄被归类为“白葡萄”,但实际上这些葡萄的皮上含有不同程度的颜色。因此,大多数“白葡萄”实际上都是绿色、黄色、稻草色,而灰皮诺(灰皮诺)则是灰粉色。白葡萄酒与红葡萄酒或玫瑰葡萄酒生产之间的区别在于在发酵过程中葡萄皮没有接触。

葡萄酒葡萄收获后,通常会从茎干中取出,碾碎,压紧。这个过程将清汁从茎和果皮中分离出来,同时确保在发酵之前提取出最小的颜色和其他化合物。在某些情况下,酿酒师可能会选择让果汁与皮肤接触,或者在不进行压榨或去籽的情况下压榨整串葡萄。

并非所有用于生产白葡萄酒的葡萄都缺乏色泽或色素沉着。事实上,市场上最著名的两种葡萄品种,现在生产的白葡萄酒都是用成熟葡萄上的浅红色或完全红色的葡萄皮制成的。在勃艮第(Burgundy)、加利福尼亚(California)和俄勒冈州(Oregon)生产最优质葡萄酒的红葡萄——黑比诺(Pinot Noir),在香槟(Champagne)的葡萄酒中具有极其重要的地位。由黑(红)葡萄酿制的白葡萄酒(Blanc de Noirs)或白葡萄酒(white wine),最常由黑比诺(Pinot Noir)和不太为人知的白比诺(Pinot Meunier)葡萄酿制而成,这两种葡萄都是深色皮的葡萄品种。灰皮诺葡萄(Pinot Gris, Grigio)是另一种黑皮葡萄品种,用于生产阿尔萨斯和意大利著名的蒸馏酒。

一旦榨出白葡萄酒的葡萄,一段时间后,果汁就会沉淀下来。在此阶段,榨出汁中的任何固体都将逐渐沉淀在罐底。因此,在这些固体的顶部产生的汁液是清楚的,并将被转移到另一个罐或容器进行发酵。在这个过程中,清澈的汁液被从罐底的固体中除去,这被称为“倒槽”,在发酵和老化的过程中会被多次预成型。随着清汁现在不含大多数固体物质,发酵的过程将会发生。通过引入原生酵母或培养酵母,白色果汁中的糖将成为酵母菌株活跃所需的摄入。在这个过程中,发酵过程将糖转化为二氧化碳、热量和酒精。通常,白葡萄酒的发酵过程比红酒发酵所需要的时间要长。较长的时间是由于需要保持发酵的果汁在一个凉爽的温度,以防止果汁腐败。白色的果汁缺乏葡萄皮中所含的天然防腐剂,因此果汁更容易氧化和变黄。保持果汁在凉爽的温度有助于防止腐败,但保持酵母的活力较低,因此发酵过程需要更长的时间。

一旦发酵完成,果汁就含有酒精,因此被认为是酒。额外的老化是由酿酒师决定的,并且大多数生产的葡萄酒在装瓶之前会经历额外的槽和/或桶老化。在老化过程中,酿酒师可能会选择使用一些技术来增加成品酒的复杂性。白葡萄酒最常见的陈酿方式之一是酿造过程。这是将被分解的酵母细胞(lees)搅拌到葡萄酒中。这是周期性地在衰老过程中完成的,通常会产生奶油状的、坚果的特征,在葡萄酒中可以被描述为类似于漂白杏仁和面包面团的味道。一些白葡萄酒,通常是霞多丽葡萄酒而不是其他白葡萄酒,将在小街区经历桶状陈酿。巴立克葡萄酒的体积一般为225升,在葡萄酒中注入了多种口味。生产者可以选择使用这些橡木桶,以提供更多的风味,让人想起奶油土司,香草和蜂蜜。

在陈酿过程完成后,白葡萄酒通常会经历一个冷稳定的过程,在这个过程中,酒中酒石酸会在一定时间内保持较低的温度。酿酒师也可以选择在装瓶前对葡萄酒进行精酿或过滤,并在葡萄酒中添加额外的硫磺,以保证葡萄酒装瓶后质量良好。这些决定通常都是酿酒师的自由裁量权,越来越多的白葡萄酒生产商很少精细、过滤、冷凝和使用额外的硫磺,尽管酿酒师这样做的总体比例相对较低。一种日益流行的做法是用葡萄酒杯或螺旋盖封口机封住适合年轻人饮用的白葡萄酒。这些类型的外壳可以防止软木污染或TCA, TCA是一种通过软木树皮传播的细菌,用于将葡萄酒密封到葡萄酒中。除了防止葡萄酒受到软木污染外,螺纹瓶盖外壳还能在饮用前方便地打开,尽管如今仍有许多消费者认为用这种方式密封的葡萄酒缺乏质量。

原文:

While the majority of grapes that are cultivated for the production of white wine are classified as ‘white grapes’, in reality these grapes contain varying levels of color on the skins. Therefore, most ‘white grapes’ in fact show colors of green, yellow, straw and in the case of Pinot Gris (Grigio) greyish-pink. The distinguishing factor in separating white wines from red or rose wine production is the absence of grape skin contact during the fermentation process.

After the white wine grapes have been harvested, they are most often removed from the stems, crushed, and pressed. This process separates the clear juice from the stems and skins while ensuring that minimal color and other compounds have been extracted prior to fermentation. In some cases, a winemaker may choose to allow some juice to skin contact, or press the whole clusters of grapes without employing the processes of crushing or de-stemming.

Not all grapes used for white wine production lack color or pigmentation in the skins. In fact, two of the most recognizable grape varieties in the market today produce white wines from grapes with light red or fully red skin color on the ripe grapes. Pinot Noir, a red grape, which produces some of the finest wines in Burgundy, California and Oregon, is of tremendous importance in the wines of Champagne in which it is most often encountered in Blanc de Noirs Champagne. The term Blanc de Noirs or white wine that is produced from black (red) grapes is most often produced from Pinot Noir and the lesser-known Pinot Meunier grapes, both of which are dark skinned grape varieties. Pinot Gris (Grigio) is another dark skinned grape variety that is used to produce the well-known still white wines from Alsace and Italy.

Once the grapes for white wine have been pressed, a period of time passes in which the juice is allowed to settle. During this phase, any solids that were in the juice after pressing will gradually settle at the bottom of the tank. The resulting juice on the top of these solids is therefore clear and will be transferred to another tank or vessel for fermentation. This process, in which the clear juice is removed from the solids in the bottom of tank is known as racking and will be preformed a number of times over the course of fermentation and aging. With the clear juice now free of the majority of solid matter, the process of fermentation will occur. Through the introduction of native or cultured yeasts, the sugars in the white juice will become the intake necessary for the yeasts strains to become active. During this activity, the process of fermentation will convert the sugars into Carbon Dioxide, heat and alcohol. Typically the process of fermentation for white wine is done over a longer period of time than what is necessary for red wine fermentation. The longer duration of time is due to the need to keep the fermenting juice at a cool temperature in order to keep the juice from spoiling. White juice lacks the natural preservatives found in the skins of the grape and therefore the juice is more prone to oxidation and browning. Keeping the juice at a cool temperature helps protect against spoilage, but keeps the vigor of the yeasts low and therefore the fermentation process takes a longer period of time.

Once fermentation is complete, the juice contains alcohol and therefore is considered to be wine. Additional aging is at the discretion of the winemaker and most wines produced will undergo additional tank and/or barrel aging prior to bottling. During the aging process, the winemaker may choose to employ a number of techniques that will add complexity to the finished wine. One of the more common aging practices for white wines is the process of Battonage. This is the stirring of the broken down yeast cells known as lees, into the wine. This is done periodically over the course of aging and often results in creamy, nutty characteristics in the wine that can be described as flavors similar to blanched almonds and bread dough. Some white wines, more often Chardonnay than other white varieties, will undergo barrel aging in small barriques. Barriques are typically 225 liters in size and impart a range of flavors in the wine. Producers can choose to use these oak barrels to impart additional flavors reminiscent of buttered toast, vanilla and honey.

After the aging process is complete, white wines often go through the process of cold stabilization, in which tartaric acid is removed from the wine by keeping the temperature consistently low for a number of days. The winemaker may also choose to fine or filter the wine before bottling, as well as add additional sulfur to the wine in order to guarantee a sound product once the wine has been bottled. These decisions are often solely the discretion of the winemaker and a growing number of white wine producers rarely fine, filter, cold stabilize and use additional sulfur, although the overall percentage of winemakers doing this is relatively low. A growing trend is to seal white wines meant for youthful consumption using Stelvin or Screw Cap enclosures. These types of enclosures guarantee against cork taint or TCA, a bacteria that is transmitted from cork bark used to seal wines into the wine itself. In addition to securing the wine from cork taint, screw cap enclosures allow for easy opening before consumption, although the perception of a lack of quality in the wines sealed this way still exists with a number of consumers today.